Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Arguments consist of premises and conclusions. Premises are structured so as to lend support to conclusions. The kind of support that a premise lends to a conclusion allows us to distinguish between deductive and inductive arguments. This week, you will be constructing both kinds of arguments.

1.  In three premises each, construct one example of each following deductive argument form:

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·  Modus ponens

·  Modus tollens

·  Hypothetical syllogism

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·  Disjunctive syllogism

Make sure your arguments are deductively valid and that your examples are your own. Here are two examples of the general format that your arguments should take:

Modus ponens:

1.  If it is raining, then it is pouring.

2.  It is raining.

3.  Therefore, it is pouring.

Modus tollens:

1.  If Jack went to the grocery store, then he bought cookies.

2.  Jack did not buy cookies.

3.  Therefore, Jack did not go to the grocery store.

2.  After you construct the preceding deductive argument forms, construct a three premise syllogism. For example:

1.  All men are mortal.

2.  Socrates is a man.

3.  Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

3.  After you construct a three premise syllogism, construct one of each of the following inductive argument patterns:

·  Induction by enumeration

·  Reasoning by analogy

·  Statistical induction

·  Higher-level induction

Your examples of inductive argument patterns should not be expressed in premise form. Rather, they should be informally expressed in writing. You should have one paragraph for each pattern. Be as detailed as possible.

Finally, please remember to label your arguments. This makes it easier for them to be graded.

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