Pathophysiology: Early stages consists of dysplasia (starts mild), which occurs at the junction of columnar cells with squamous cells at the external os. The majority of cervical cancers arise from squamous cells. A pap smear test will reveal the signs of dysplasis before cancer has manifested. Invasive carcinomas appear as a protruding nodular mass or ulceration. As the carcinoma spreads into neighbouring tissues (including uterus and vagina), it may reach the connective tissue, bladder and rectum. Metastases to lymph or blood occurs rarely at late stages.

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